ii2 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION these persons were candidates for the secular ministry, his letter shows that the transition from civic to Church schools of grammar was under way at the beginning of the Seventh Century, but that it was not yet a matter of course that bishops should make them- selves responsible for ordinary education. Probably it was in England that the new schools first made their appearance. The earliest schools of the kind of which we have definite record were established there; and curiously enough it was to the activities of Pope Gregory that they indirectly owed their foundation. The facts are given in Bede's History :* " At that time (631) the king of East Anglia was Sigebert, a good and religious man, who sometime before had received baptism while in exile in Gaul. On his return home, as soon as he had regained his kingdom, wishing to imitate what he had seen well arranged among the Gauls, he instituted a school in which boys might be taught grammar (litterez). In this enterprise he was assisted by Bishop Felix, who came to him from Kent and brought with him ushers and teachers after the fashion of the Canterbury people." In this passage, it will be noted, reference is made not only to the East Anglian School at Dunwich, but to a still older one in Canterbury which had been long enough in existence to be able to furnish teachers for it. When was the latter founded ? The mention of Bishop Felix shows that plainly enough. Felix was a Burgundian who had been consecrated bishop by one of the com- panions of Augustine, the monk sent as a missionary to England by Gregory. Consequently the school must have been estab- lished as part of Augustine's missionary undertaking, and not improbably at the same time as the church itself: sometime about 600. But the association of the school with Augustine raises two difficulties. How did it come, in the first place, that a monk had to do with a school presumably intended for the laity ? Was it likely, in the second place, that a missionary sent to England by Gregory would have run directly counter to his views on the impiety of grammar teaching by founding a grammar school in connection with his church ? The answer to the first of these questions is that though Augustine himself was a monk, the church was under secular, not monastic, rules. To the second question, the simplest answer might seem to be that the Canterbury school . was not really a grammar school at all, but one that limited its * iii, 18.